python(socket模块)(收录)

Socket

socket通常也称作”套接字”,用于描述IP地址和端口,是一个通信链的句柄,应用程序通常通过”套接字”向网络发出请求或者应答网络请求。

socket起源于Unix,而Unix/Linux基本哲学之一就是“一切皆文件”,对于文件用【打开】【读写】【关闭】模式来操作。socket就是该模式的一个实现,socket即是一种特殊的文件,一些socket函数就是对其进行的操作(读/写IO、打开、关闭)

socket和file的区别:

  • file模块是针对某个指定文件进行【打开】【读写】【关闭】
  • socket模块是针对 服务器端 和 客户端Socket 进行【打开】【读写】【关闭】

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import socket

ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',9999)

sk = socket.socket()
sk.bind(ip_port)
sk.listen(5)

while True:
    print 'server waiting...'
    conn,addr = sk.accept()

    client_data = conn.recv(1024)
    print client_data
    conn.sendall('不要回答,不要回答,不要回答')

    conn.close()
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import socket
ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',9999)

sk = socket.socket()
sk.connect(ip_port)

sk.sendall('请求占领地球')

server_reply = sk.recv(1024)
print server_reply

sk.close()
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WEB服务应用:

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#!/usr/bin/env python
#coding:utf-8
import socket
def handle_request(client):
    buf = client.recv(1024)
    client.send("HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n\r\n")
    client.send("Hello, World")
def main():
    sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
    sock.bind(('localhost',8080))
    sock.listen(5)
    while True:
        connection, address = sock.accept()
        handle_request(connection)
        connection.close()
if __name__ == '__main__':
  main()

更多功能

sk = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM,0)

参数一:地址簇

socket.AF_INET IPv4(默认)
socket.AF_INET6 IPv6

socket.AF_UNIX 只能够用于单一的Unix系统进程间通信

参数二:类型

socket.SOCK_STREAM  流式socket , for TCP (默认)
socket.SOCK_DGRAM   数据报式socket , for UDP

socket.SOCK_RAW 原始套接字,普通的套接字无法处理ICMP、IGMP等网络报文,而SOCK_RAW可以;其次,SOCK_RAW也可以处理特殊的IPv4报文;此外,利用原始套接字,可以通过IP_HDRINCL套接字选项由用户构造IP头。
socket.SOCK_RDM 是一种可靠的UDP形式,即保证交付数据报但不保证顺序。SOCK_RAM用来提供对原始协议的低级访问,在需要执行某些特殊操作时使用,如发送ICMP报文。SOCK_RAM通常仅限于高级用户或管理员运行的程序使用。
socket.SOCK_SEQPACKET 可靠的连续数据包服务

参数三:协议

0  (默认)与特定的地址家族相关的协议,如果是 0 ,则系统就会根据地址格式和套接类别,自动选择一个合适的协议

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import socket
ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',9999)
sk = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_DGRAM,0)
sk.bind(ip_port)

while True:
    data = sk.recv(1024)
    print data




import socket
ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',9999)

sk = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_DGRAM,0)
while True:
    inp = raw_input('数据:').strip()
    if inp == 'exit':
        break
    sk.sendto(inp,ip_port)

sk.close()
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sk.bind(address)

s.bind(address) 将套接字绑定到地址。address地址的格式取决于地址族。在AF_INET下,以元组(host,port)的形式表示地址。

sk.listen(backlog)

开始监听传入连接。backlog指定在拒绝连接之前,可以挂起的最大连接数量。

backlog等于5,表示内核已经接到了连接请求,但服务器还没有调用accept进行处理的连接个数最大为5
这个值不能无限大,因为要在内核中维护连接队列

sk.setblocking(bool)

是否阻塞(默认True),如果设置False,那么accept和recv时一旦无数据,则报错。

sk.accept()

接受连接并返回(conn,address),其中conn是新的套接字对象,可以用来接收和发送数据。address是连接客户端的地址。

接收TCP 客户的连接(阻塞式)等待连接的到来

sk.connect(address)

连接到address处的套接字。一般,address的格式为元组(hostname,port),如果连接出错,返回socket.error错误。

sk.connect_ex(address)

同上,只不过会有返回值,连接成功时返回 0 ,连接失败时候返回编码,例如:10061

sk.close()

关闭套接字

sk.recv(bufsize[,flag])

接受套接字的数据。数据以字符串形式返回,bufsize指定最多可以接收的数量。flag提供有关消息的其他信息,通常可以忽略。

sk.recvfrom(bufsize[.flag])

与recv()类似,但返回值是(data,address)。其中data是包含接收数据的字符串,address是发送数据的套接字地址。

sk.send(string[,flag])

将string中的数据发送到连接的套接字。返回值是要发送的字节数量,该数量可能小于string的字节大小。即:可能未将指定内容全部发送。

sk.sendall(string[,flag])

将string中的数据发送到连接的套接字,但在返回之前会尝试发送所有数据。成功返回None,失败则抛出异常。

内部通过递归调用send,将所有内容发送出去。

sk.sendto(string[,flag],address)

将数据发送到套接字,address是形式为(ipaddr,port)的元组,指定远程地址。返回值是发送的字节数。该函数主要用于UDP协议。

sk.settimeout(timeout)

设置套接字操作的超时期,timeout是一个浮点数,单位是秒。值为None表示没有超时期。一般,超时期应该在刚创建套接字时设置,因为它们可能用于连接的操作(如 client 连接最多等待5s )

sk.getpeername()

返回连接套接字的远程地址。返回值通常是元组(ipaddr,port)。

sk.getsockname()

返回套接字自己的地址。通常是一个元组(ipaddr,port)

sk.fileno()

套接字的文件描述符

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# 服务端
import socket
ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',9999)
sk = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_DGRAM,0)
sk.bind(ip_port)

while True:
    data,(host,port) = sk.recvfrom(1024)
    print(data,host,port)
    sk.sendto(bytes('ok', encoding='utf-8'), (host,port))


#客户端
import socket
ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',9999)

sk = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_DGRAM,0)
while True:
    inp = input('数据:').strip()
    if inp == 'exit':
        break
    sk.sendto(bytes(inp, encoding='utf-8'),ip_port)
    data = sk.recvfrom(1024)
    print(data)

sk.close()
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实例:智能机器人

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-


import socket

ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8888)
sk = socket.socket()
sk.bind(ip_port)
sk.listen(5)

while True:
    conn,address =  sk.accept()
    conn.sendall('欢迎致电 10086,请输入1xxx,0转人工服务.')
    Flag = True
    while Flag:
        data = conn.recv(1024)
        if data == 'exit':
            Flag = False
        elif data == '0':
            conn.sendall('通过可能会被录音.balabala一大推')
        else:
            conn.sendall('请重新输入.')
    conn.close()
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import socket


ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8005)
sk = socket.socket()
sk.connect(ip_port)
sk.settimeout(5)

while True:
    data = sk.recv(1024)
    print 'receive:',data
    inp = raw_input('please input:')
    sk.sendall(inp)
    if inp == 'exit':
        break

sk.close()
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IO多路复用

I/O多路复用指:通过一种机制,可以监视多个描述符,一旦某个描述符就绪(一般是读就绪或者写就绪),能够通知程序进行相应的读写操作。

Linux

Linux中的 select,poll,epoll 都是IO多路复用的机制。

Python

Python中有一个select模块,其中提供了:select、poll、epoll三个方法,分别调用系统的 select,poll,epoll 从而实现IO多路复用。

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Windows Python:
    提供: select
Mac Python:
    提供: select
Linux Python:
    提供: select、poll、epoll

注意:网络操作、文件操作、终端操作等均属于IO操作,对于windows只支持Socket操作,其他系统支持其他IO操作,但是无法检测 普通文件操作 自动上次读取是否已经变化。

对于select方法:

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句柄列表11, 句柄列表22, 句柄列表33 = select.select(句柄序列1, 句柄序列2, 句柄序列3, 超时时间)
参数: 可接受四个参数(前三个必须)
返回值:三个列表
select方法用来监视文件句柄,如果句柄发生变化,则获取该句柄。
1、当 参数1 序列中的句柄发生可读时(accetp和read),则获取发生变化的句柄并添加到 返回值1 序列中
2、当 参数2 序列中含有句柄时,则将该序列中所有的句柄添加到 返回值2 序列中
3、当 参数3 序列中的句柄发生错误时,则将该发生错误的句柄添加到 返回值3 序列中
4、当 超时时间 未设置,则select会一直阻塞,直到监听的句柄发生变化
   当 超时时间 = 1时,那么如果监听的句柄均无任何变化,则select会阻塞 1 秒,之后返回三个空列表,如果监听的句柄有变化,则直接执行。

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import select
import threading
import sys

while True:
    readable, writeable, error = select.select([sys.stdin,],[],[],1)
    if sys.stdin in readable:
        print 'select get stdin',sys.stdin.readline()
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import socket
import select

sk1 = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
sk1.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
sk1.bind(('127.0.0.1',8002))
sk1.listen(5)
sk1.setblocking(0)

inputs = [sk1,]

while True:
    readable_list, writeable_list, error_list = select.select(inputs, [], inputs, 1)
    for r in readable_list:
        # 当客户端第一次连接服务端时
        if sk1 == r:
            print 'accept'
            request, address = r.accept()
            request.setblocking(0)
            inputs.append(request)
        # 当客户端连接上服务端之后,再次发送数据时
        else:
            received = r.recv(1024)
            # 当正常接收客户端发送的数据时
            if received:
                print 'received data:', received
            # 当客户端关闭程序时
            else:
                inputs.remove(r)

sk1.close()
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import socket

ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8002)
sk = socket.socket()
sk.connect(ip_port)

while True:
    inp = raw_input('please input:')
    sk.sendall(inp)
sk.close()
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此处的Socket服务端相比与原生的Socket,他支持当某一个请求不再发送数据时,服务器端不会等待而是可以去处理其他请求的数据。但是,如果每个请求的耗时比较长时,select版本的服务器端也无法完成同时操作。

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#!/usr/bin/env python
#coding:utf8

'''
 服务器的实现 采用select的方式
'''

import select
import socket
import sys
import Queue

#创建套接字并设置该套接字为非阻塞模式

server = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM)
server.setblocking(0)

#绑定套接字
server_address = ('localhost',10000)
print >>sys.stderr,'starting up on %s port %s'% server_address
server.bind(server_address)

#将该socket变成服务模式
#backlog等于5,表示内核已经接到了连接请求,但服务器还没有调用accept进行处理的连接个数最大为5
#这个值不能无限大,因为要在内核中维护连接队列

server.listen(5)

#初始化读取数据的监听列表,最开始时希望从server这个套接字上读取数据
inputs = [server]

#初始化写入数据的监听列表,最开始并没有客户端连接进来,所以列表为空

outputs = []

#要发往客户端的数据
message_queues = {}
while inputs:
    print >>sys.stderr,'waiting for the next event'
    #调用select监听所有监听列表中的套接字,并将准备好的套接字加入到对应的列表中
    readable,writable,exceptional = select.select(inputs,outputs,inputs)#列表中的socket 套接字  如果是文件呢?
    #监控文件句柄有某一处发生了变化 可写 可读  异常属于Linux中的网络编程
    #属于同步I/O操作,属于I/O复用模型的一种
    #rlist--等待到准备好读
    #wlist--等待到准备好写
    #xlist--等待到一种异常
    #处理可读取的套接字

    '''
        如果server这个套接字可读,则说明有新链接到来
        此时在server套接字上调用accept,生成一个与客户端通讯的套接字
        并将与客户端通讯的套接字加入inputs列表,下一次可以通过select检查连接是否可读
        然后在发往客户端的缓冲中加入一项,键名为:与客户端通讯的套接字,键值为空队列
        select系统调用是用来让我们的程序监视多个文件句柄(file descrīptor)的状态变化的。程序会停在select这里等待,
        直到被监视的文件句柄有某一个或多个发生了状态改变
        '''

    '''
        若可读的套接字不是server套接字,有两种情况:一种是有数据到来,另一种是链接断开
        如果有数据到来,先接收数据,然后将收到的数据填入往客户端的缓存区中的对应位置,最后
        将于客户端通讯的套接字加入到写数据的监听列表:
        如果套接字可读.但没有接收到数据,则说明客户端已经断开。这时需要关闭与客户端连接的套接字
        进行资源清理
        '''

    for s in readable:
        if s is server:
            connection,client_address = s.accept()
            print >>sys.stderr,'connection from',client_address
            connection.setblocking(0)#设置非阻塞
            inputs.append(connection)
            message_queues[connection] = Queue.Queue()
        else:
            data = s.recv(1024)
            if data:
                print >>sys.stderr,'received "%s" from %s'% \
                (data,s.getpeername())
                message_queues[s].put(data)
                if s not in outputs:
                    outputs.append(s)
            else:
                print >>sys.stderr,'closing',client_address
                if s in outputs:
                    outputs.remove(s)
                inputs.remove(s)
                s.close()
                del message_queues[s]

    #处理可写的套接字
    '''
        在发送缓冲区中取出响应的数据,发往客户端。
        如果没有数据需要写,则将套接字从发送队列中移除,select中不再监视
        '''

    for s in writable:
        try:
            next_msg = message_queues[s].get_nowait()

        except Queue.Empty:
            print >>sys.stderr,'  ',s,getpeername(),'queue empty'
            outputs.remove(s)
        else:
            print >>sys.stderr,'sending "%s" to %s'% \
            (next_msg,s.getpeername())
            s.send(next_msg)



    #处理异常情况

    for s in exceptional:
        for s in exceptional:
            print >>sys.stderr,'exception condition on',s.getpeername()
            inputs.remove(s)
            if s in outputs:
                outputs.remove(s)
            s.close()
            del message_queues[s]
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SocketServer模块

SocketServer内部使用 IO多路复用 以及 “多线程” 和 “多进程” ,从而实现并发处理多个客户端请求的Socket服务端。即:每个客户端请求连接到服务器时,Socket服务端都会在服务器是创建一个“线程”或者“进程” 专门负责处理当前客户端的所有请求。

ThreadingTCPServer

ThreadingTCPServer实现的Soket服务器内部会为每个client创建一个 “线程”,该线程用来和客户端进行交互。

1、ThreadingTCPServer基础

使用ThreadingTCPServer:

  • 创建一个继承自 SocketServer.BaseRequestHandler 的类
  • 类中必须定义一个名称为 handle 的方法
  • 启动ThreadingTCPServer

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import SocketServer

class MyServer(SocketServer.BaseRequestHandler):

    def handle(self):
        # print self.request,self.client_address,self.server
        conn = self.request
        conn.sendall('欢迎致电 10086,请输入1xxx,0转人工服务.')
        Flag = True
        while Flag:
            data = conn.recv(1024)
            if data == 'exit':
                Flag = False
            elif data == '0':
                conn.sendall('通过可能会被录音.balabala一大推')
            else:
                conn.sendall('请重新输入.')


if __name__ == '__main__':
    server = SocketServer.ThreadingTCPServer(('127.0.0.1',8009),MyServer)
    server.serve_forever()
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import socket


ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8009)
sk = socket.socket()
sk.connect(ip_port)
sk.settimeout(5)

while True:
    data = sk.recv(1024)
    print 'receive:',data
    inp = raw_input('please input:')
    sk.sendall(inp)
    if inp == 'exit':
        break

sk.close()
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2、ThreadingTCPServer源码剖析

ThreadingTCPServer的类图关系如下:

内部调用流程为:

  • 启动服务端程序
  • 执行 TCPServer.__init__ 方法,创建服务端Socket对象并绑定 IP 和 端口
  • 执行 BaseServer.__init__ 方法,将自定义的继承自SocketServer.BaseRequestHandler 的类 MyRequestHandle赋值给 self.RequestHandlerClass
  • 执行 BaseServer.server_forever 方法,While 循环一直监听是否有客户端请求到达 …
  • 当客户端连接到达服务器
  • 执行 ThreadingMixIn.process_request 方法,创建一个 “线程” 用来处理请求
  • 执行 ThreadingMixIn.process_request_thread 方法
  • 执行 BaseServer.finish_request 方法,执行 self.RequestHandlerClass()  即:执行 自定义 MyRequestHandler 的构造方法(自动调用基类BaseRequestHandler的构造方法,在该构造方法中又会调用 MyRequestHandler的handle方法)

ThreadingTCPServer相关源码:

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class BaseServer:

    """Base class for server classes.

    Methods for the caller:

    - __init__(server_address, RequestHandlerClass)
    - serve_forever(poll_interval=0.5)
    - shutdown()
    - handle_request()  # if you do not use serve_forever()
    - fileno() -> int   # for select()

    Methods that may be overridden:

    - server_bind()
    - server_activate()
    - get_request() -> request, client_address
    - handle_timeout()
    - verify_request(request, client_address)
    - server_close()
    - process_request(request, client_address)
    - shutdown_request(request)
    - close_request(request)
    - handle_error()

    Methods for derived classes:

    - finish_request(request, client_address)

    Class variables that may be overridden by derived classes or
    instances:

    - timeout
    - address_family
    - socket_type
    - allow_reuse_address

    Instance variables:

    - RequestHandlerClass
    - socket

    """

    timeout = None

    def __init__(self, server_address, RequestHandlerClass):
        """Constructor.  May be extended, do not override."""
        self.server_address = server_address
        self.RequestHandlerClass = RequestHandlerClass
        self.__is_shut_down = threading.Event()
        self.__shutdown_request = False

    def server_activate(self):
        """Called by constructor to activate the server.

        May be overridden.

        """
        pass

    def serve_forever(self, poll_interval=0.5):
        """Handle one request at a time until shutdown.

        Polls for shutdown every poll_interval seconds. Ignores
        self.timeout. If you need to do periodic tasks, do them in
        another thread.
        """
        self.__is_shut_down.clear()
        try:
            while not self.__shutdown_request:
                # XXX: Consider using another file descriptor or
                # connecting to the socket to wake this up instead of
                # polling. Polling reduces our responsiveness to a
                # shutdown request and wastes cpu at all other times.
                r, w, e = _eintr_retry(select.select, [self], [], [],
                                       poll_interval)
                if self in r:
                    self._handle_request_noblock()
        finally:
            self.__shutdown_request = False
            self.__is_shut_down.set()

    def shutdown(self):
        """Stops the serve_forever loop.

        Blocks until the loop has finished. This must be called while
        serve_forever() is running in another thread, or it will
        deadlock.
        """
        self.__shutdown_request = True
        self.__is_shut_down.wait()

    # The distinction between handling, getting, processing and
    # finishing a request is fairly arbitrary.  Remember:
    #
    # - handle_request() is the top-level call.  It calls
    #   select, get_request(), verify_request() and process_request()
    # - get_request() is different for stream or datagram sockets
    # - process_request() is the place that may fork a new process
    #   or create a new thread to finish the request
    # - finish_request() instantiates the request handler class;
    #   this constructor will handle the request all by itself

    def handle_request(self):
        """Handle one request, possibly blocking.

        Respects self.timeout.
        """
        # Support people who used socket.settimeout() to escape
        # handle_request before self.timeout was available.
        timeout = self.socket.gettimeout()
        if timeout is None:
            timeout = self.timeout
        elif self.timeout is not None:
            timeout = min(timeout, self.timeout)
        fd_sets = _eintr_retry(select.select, [self], [], [], timeout)
        if not fd_sets[0]:
            self.handle_timeout()
            return
        self._handle_request_noblock()

    def _handle_request_noblock(self):
        """Handle one request, without blocking.

        I assume that select.select has returned that the socket is
        readable before this function was called, so there should be
        no risk of blocking in get_request().
        """
        try:
            request, client_address = self.get_request()
        except socket.error:
            return
        if self.verify_request(request, client_address):
            try:
                self.process_request(request, client_address)
            except:
                self.handle_error(request, client_address)
                self.shutdown_request(request)

    def handle_timeout(self):
        """Called if no new request arrives within self.timeout.

        Overridden by ForkingMixIn.
        """
        pass

    def verify_request(self, request, client_address):
        """Verify the request.  May be overridden.

        Return True if we should proceed with this request.

        """
        return True

    def process_request(self, request, client_address):
        """Call finish_request.

        Overridden by ForkingMixIn and ThreadingMixIn.

        """
        self.finish_request(request, client_address)
        self.shutdown_request(request)

    def server_close(self):
        """Called to clean-up the server.

        May be overridden.

        """
        pass

    def finish_request(self, request, client_address):
        """Finish one request by instantiating RequestHandlerClass."""
        self.RequestHandlerClass(request, client_address, self)

    def shutdown_request(self, request):
        """Called to shutdown and close an individual request."""
        self.close_request(request)

    def close_request(self, request):
        """Called to clean up an individual request."""
        pass

    def handle_error(self, request, client_address):
        """Handle an error gracefully.  May be overridden.

        The default is to print a traceback and continue.

        """
        print '-'*40
        print 'Exception happened during processing of request from',
        print client_address
        import traceback
        traceback.print_exc() # XXX But this goes to stderr!
        print '-'*40
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class TCPServer(BaseServer):

    """Base class for various socket-based server classes.

    Defaults to synchronous IP stream (i.e., TCP).

    Methods for the caller:

    - __init__(server_address, RequestHandlerClass, bind_and_activate=True)
    - serve_forever(poll_interval=0.5)
    - shutdown()
    - handle_request()  # if you don't use serve_forever()
    - fileno() -> int   # for select()

    Methods that may be overridden:

    - server_bind()
    - server_activate()
    - get_request() -> request, client_address
    - handle_timeout()
    - verify_request(request, client_address)
    - process_request(request, client_address)
    - shutdown_request(request)
    - close_request(request)
    - handle_error()

    Methods for derived classes:

    - finish_request(request, client_address)

    Class variables that may be overridden by derived classes or
    instances:

    - timeout
    - address_family
    - socket_type
    - request_queue_size (only for stream sockets)
    - allow_reuse_address

    Instance variables:

    - server_address
    - RequestHandlerClass
    - socket

    """

    address_family = socket.AF_INET

    socket_type = socket.SOCK_STREAM

    request_queue_size = 5

    allow_reuse_address = False

    def __init__(self, server_address, RequestHandlerClass, bind_and_activate=True):
        """Constructor.  May be extended, do not override."""
        BaseServer.__init__(self, server_address, RequestHandlerClass)
        self.socket = socket.socket(self.address_family,
                                    self.socket_type)
        if bind_and_activate:
            try:
                self.server_bind()
                self.server_activate()
            except:
                self.server_close()
                raise

    def server_bind(self):
        """Called by constructor to bind the socket.

        May be overridden.

        """
        if self.allow_reuse_address:
            self.socket.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
        self.socket.bind(self.server_address)
        self.server_address = self.socket.getsockname()

    def server_activate(self):
        """Called by constructor to activate the server.

        May be overridden.

        """
        self.socket.listen(self.request_queue_size)

    def server_close(self):
        """Called to clean-up the server.

        May be overridden.

        """
        self.socket.close()

    def fileno(self):
        """Return socket file number.

        Interface required by select().

        """
        return self.socket.fileno()

    def get_request(self):
        """Get the request and client address from the socket.

        May be overridden.

        """
        return self.socket.accept()

    def shutdown_request(self, request):
        """Called to shutdown and close an individual request."""
        try:
            #explicitly shutdown.  socket.close() merely releases
            #the socket and waits for GC to perform the actual close.
            request.shutdown(socket.SHUT_WR)
        except socket.error:
            pass #some platforms may raise ENOTCONN here
        self.close_request(request)

    def close_request(self, request):
        """Called to clean up an individual request."""
        request.close()
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class ThreadingMixIn:
    """Mix-in class to handle each request in a new thread."""

    # Decides how threads will act upon termination of the
    # main process
    daemon_threads = False

    def process_request_thread(self, request, client_address):
        """Same as in BaseServer but as a thread.

        In addition, exception handling is done here.

        """
        try:
            self.finish_request(request, client_address)
            self.shutdown_request(request)
        except:
            self.handle_error(request, client_address)
            self.shutdown_request(request)

    def process_request(self, request, client_address):
        """Start a new thread to process the request."""
        t = threading.Thread(target = self.process_request_thread,
                             args = (request, client_address))
        t.daemon = self.daemon_threads
        t.start()
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class ThreadingTCPServer(ThreadingMixIn, TCPServer): pass

RequestHandler相关源码

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class BaseRequestHandler:

    """Base class for request handler classes.

    This class is instantiated for each request to be handled.  The
    constructor sets the instance variables request, client_address
    and server, and then calls the handle() method.  To implement a
    specific service, all you need to do is to derive a class which
    defines a handle() method.

    The handle() method can find the request as self.request, the
    client address as self.client_address, and the server (in case it
    needs access to per-server information) as self.server.  Since a
    separate instance is created for each request, the handle() method
    can define arbitrary other instance variariables.

    """

    def __init__(self, request, client_address, server):
        self.request = request
        self.client_address = client_address
        self.server = server
        self.setup()
        try:
            self.handle()
        finally:
            self.finish()

    def setup(self):
        pass

    def handle(self):
        pass

    def finish(self):
        pass
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实例:

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import SocketServer

class MyServer(SocketServer.BaseRequestHandler):

    def handle(self):
        # print self.request,self.client_address,self.server
        conn = self.request
        conn.sendall('欢迎致电 10086,请输入1xxx,0转人工服务.')
        Flag = True
        while Flag:
            data = conn.recv(1024)
            if data == 'exit':
                Flag = False
            elif data == '0':
                conn.sendall('通过可能会被录音.balabala一大推')
            else:
                conn.sendall('请重新输入.')


if __name__ == '__main__':
    server = SocketServer.ThreadingTCPServer(('127.0.0.1',8009),MyServer)
    server.serve_forever()
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import socket


ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8009)
sk = socket.socket()
sk.connect(ip_port)
sk.settimeout(5)

while True:
    data = sk.recv(1024)
    print 'receive:',data
    inp = raw_input('please input:')
    sk.sendall(inp)
    if inp == 'exit':
        break

sk.close()
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源码精简:

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import socket
import threading
import select


def process(request, client_address):
    print request,client_address
    conn = request
    conn.sendall('欢迎致电 10086,请输入1xxx,0转人工服务.')
    flag = True
    while flag:
        data = conn.recv(1024)
        if data == 'exit':
            flag = False
        elif data == '0':
            conn.sendall('通过可能会被录音.balabala一大推')
        else:
            conn.sendall('请重新输入.')

sk = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
sk.bind(('127.0.0.1',8002))
sk.listen(5)

while True:
    r, w, e = select.select([sk,],[],[],1)
    print 'looping'
    if sk in r:
        print 'get request'
        request, client_address = sk.accept()
        t = threading.Thread(target=process, args=(request, client_address))
        t.daemon = False
        t.start()

sk.close()
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如精简代码可以看出,SocketServer的ThreadingTCPServer之所以可以同时处理请求得益于 select 和 Threading 两个东西,其实本质上就是在服务器端为每一个客户端创建一个线程,当前线程用来处理对应客户端的请求,所以,可以支持同时n个客户端链接(长连接)。

ForkingTCPServer

ForkingTCPServer和ThreadingTCPServer的使用和执行流程基本一致,只不过在内部分别为请求者建立 “线程”  和 “进程”。

基本使用:

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import SocketServer

class MyServer(SocketServer.BaseRequestHandler):

    def handle(self):
        # print self.request,self.client_address,self.server
        conn = self.request
        conn.sendall('欢迎致电 10086,请输入1xxx,0转人工服务.')
        Flag = True
        while Flag:
            data = conn.recv(1024)
            if data == 'exit':
                Flag = False
            elif data == '0':
                conn.sendall('通过可能会被录音.balabala一大推')
            else:
                conn.sendall('请重新输入.')


if __name__ == '__main__':
    server = SocketServer.ForkingTCPServer(('127.0.0.1',8009),MyServer)
    server.serve_forever()
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import socket


ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8009)
sk = socket.socket()
sk.connect(ip_port)
sk.settimeout(5)

while True:
    data = sk.recv(1024)
    print 'receive:',data
    inp = raw_input('please input:')
    sk.sendall(inp)
    if inp == 'exit':
        break

sk.close()
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以上ForkingTCPServer只是将 ThreadingTCPServer 实例中的代码:

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server = SocketServer.ThreadingTCPServer(('127.0.0.1',8009),MyRequestHandler)
变更为:
server = SocketServer.ForkingTCPServer(('127.0.0.1',8009),MyRequestHandler)

SocketServer的ThreadingTCPServer之所以可以同时处理请求得益于 select 和 os.fork 两个东西,其实本质上就是在服务器端为每一个客户端创建一个进程,当前新创建的进程用来处理对应客户端的请求,所以,可以支持同时n个客户端链接(长连接)。

源码剖析参考 ThreadingTCPServer

Twisted

Twisted是一个事件驱动的网络框架,其中包含了诸多功能,例如:网络协议、线程、数据库管理、网络操作、电子邮件等。

事件驱动

简而言之,事件驱动分为二个部分:第一,注册事件;第二,触发事件。

自定义事件驱动框架,命名为:“弑君者”:

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

# event_drive.py

event_list = []


def run():
    for event in event_list:
        obj = event()
        obj.execute()


class BaseHandler(object):
    """
    用户必须继承该类,从而规范所有类的方法(类似于接口的功能)
    """
    def execute(self):
        raise Exception('you must overwrite execute')
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程序员使用“弑君者框架”:

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

from source import event_drive


class MyHandler(event_drive.BaseHandler):

    def execute(self):
        print 'event-drive execute MyHandler'


event_drive.event_list.append(MyHandler)
event_drive.run()
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如上述代码,事件驱动只不过是框架规定了执行顺序,程序员在使用框架时,可以向原执行顺序中注册“事件”,从而在框架执行时可以出发已注册的“事件”。

基于事件驱动Socket

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from twisted.internet import protocol
from twisted.internet import reactor
class Echo(protocol.Protocol):
    def dataReceived(self, data):
        self.transport.write(data)
def main():
    factory = protocol.ServerFactory()
    factory.protocol = Echo
    reactor.listenTCP(8000,factory)
    reactor.run()
if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

程序执行流程:

  • 运行服务端程序
  • 创建Protocol的派生类Echo
  • 创建ServerFactory对象,并将Echo类封装到其protocol字段中
  • 执行reactor的 listenTCP 方法,内部使用 tcp.Port 创建socket server对象,并将该对象添加到了 reactor的set类型的字段 _read 中
  • 执行reactor的 run 方法,内部执行 while 循环,并通过 select 来监视 _read 中文件描述符是否有变化,循环中…
  • 客户端请求到达
  • 执行reactor的 _doReadOrWrite 方法,其内部通过反射调用 tcp.Port 类的 doRead 方法,内部 accept 客户端连接并创建Server对象实例(用于封装客户端socket信息)和 创建 Echo 对象实例(用于处理请求) ,然后调用 Echo 对象实例的 makeConnection 方法,创建连接。
  • 执行 tcp.Server 类的 doRead 方法,读取数据,
  • 执行 tcp.Server 类的 _dataReceived 方法,如果读取数据内容为空(关闭链接),否则,出发 Echo 的 dataReceived 方法
  • 执行 Echo 的 dataReceived 方法

从源码可以看出,上述实例本质上使用了事件驱动的方法 和 IO多路复用的机制来进行Socket的处理。

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

from twisted.internet import reactor, protocol
from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor
import time

class Echo(protocol.Protocol):

    def dataReceived(self, data):
        deferred1 = getPage('http://cnblogs.com')
        deferred1.addCallback(self.printContents)

        deferred2 = getPage('http://baidu.com')
        deferred2.addCallback(self.printContents)

        for i in range(2):
            time.sleep(1)
            print 'execute ',i


    def execute(self,data):
        self.transport.write(data)

    def printContents(self,content):
        print len(content),content[0:100],time.time()

def main():

    factory = protocol.ServerFactory()
    factory.protocol = Echo

    reactor.listenTCP(8000,factory)
    reactor.run()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()
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更多请见:

https://twistedmatrix.com/trac
http://twistedmatrix.com/documents/current/api/

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