Python爬虫requests

Python标准库中提供了:urllib、urllib2、httplib等模块以供Http请求,但是,它的 API 太渣了。它是为另一个时代、另一个互联网所创建的。它需要巨量的工作,甚至包括各种方法覆盖,来完成最简单的任务。

Requests 是使用 Apache2 Licensed 许可证的 基于Python开发的HTTP 库,其在Python内置模块的基础上进行了高度的封装,从而使得Pythoner进行网络请求时,变得美好了许多,使用Requests可以轻而易举的完成浏览器可有的任何操作。

1、GET请求

# 1、无参数实例
  
import requests
  
ret = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json')
  
print ret.url
print ret.text
  
  
  
# 2、有参数实例
  
import requests
  
payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2'}
ret = requests.get("http://httpbin.org/get", params=payload)
  
print ret.url
print ret.text

2、POST请求

# 1、基本POST实例
  
import requests
  
payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2'}
ret = requests.post("http://httpbin.org/post", data=payload)
  
print ret.text
  
  
# 2、发送请求头和数据实例
  
import requests
import json
  
url = 'https://api.github.com/some/endpoint'
payload = {'some': 'data'}
headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
  
ret = requests.post(url, data=json.dumps(payload), headers=headers)
  
print ret.text
print ret.cookies

3、其他请求

requests.get(url, params=None, **kwargs)
requests.post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)
requests.put(url, data=None, **kwargs)
requests.head(url, **kwargs)
requests.delete(url, **kwargs)
requests.patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)
requests.options(url, **kwargs)
  
# 以上方法均是在此方法的基础上构建
requests.request(method, url, **kwargs)

4、更多参数

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def request(method, url, **kwargs):
    """Constructs and sends a :class:`Request <Request>`.

    :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param params: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the :class:`Request`.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``'name': file-like-objects`` (or ``{'name': file-tuple}``) for multipart encoding upload.
        ``file-tuple`` can be a 2-tuple ``('filename', fileobj)``, 3-tuple ``('filename', fileobj, 'content_type')``
        or a 4-tuple ``('filename', fileobj, 'content_type', custom_headers)``, where ``'content-type'`` is a string
        defining the content type of the given file and ``custom_headers`` a dict-like object containing additional headers
        to add for the file.
    :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
    :param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send data
        before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout, read
        timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
    :type timeout: float or tuple
    :param allow_redirects: (optional) Boolean. Set to True if POST/PUT/DELETE redirect following is allowed.
    :type allow_redirects: bool
    :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
    :param verify: (optional) whether the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided. Defaults to ``True``.
    :param stream: (optional) if ``False``, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
    :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response

    Usage::

      >>> import requests
      >>> req = requests.request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
      <Response [200]>
    """
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复制代码
def param_method_url():
    # requests.request(method='get', url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/')
    # requests.request(method='post', url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/')
    pass


def param_param():
    # - 可以是字典
    # - 可以是字符串
    # - 可以是字节(ascii编码以内)

    # requests.request(method='get',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # params={'k1': 'v1', 'k2': '水电费'})

    # requests.request(method='get',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # params="k1=v1&k2=水电费&k3=v3&k3=vv3")

    # requests.request(method='get',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # params=bytes("k1=v1&k2=k2&k3=v3&k3=vv3", encoding='utf8'))

    # 错误
    # requests.request(method='get',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # params=bytes("k1=v1&k2=水电费&k3=v3&k3=vv3", encoding='utf8'))
    pass


def param_data():
    # 可以是字典
    # 可以是字符串
    # 可以是字节
    # 可以是文件对象

    # requests.request(method='POST',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # data={'k1': 'v1', 'k2': '水电费'})

    # requests.request(method='POST',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # data="k1=v1; k2=v2; k3=v3; k3=v4"
    # )

    # requests.request(method='POST',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # data="k1=v1;k2=v2;k3=v3;k3=v4",
    # headers={'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'}
    # )

    # requests.request(method='POST',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # data=open('data_file.py', mode='r', encoding='utf-8'), # 文件内容是:k1=v1;k2=v2;k3=v3;k3=v4
    # headers={'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'}
    # )
    pass


def param_json():
    # 将json中对应的数据进行序列化成一个字符串,json.dumps(...)
    # 然后发送到服务器端的body中,并且Content-Type是 {'Content-Type': 'application/json'}
    requests.request(method='POST',
                     url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
                     json={'k1': 'v1', 'k2': '水电费'})


def param_headers():
    # 发送请求头到服务器端
    requests.request(method='POST',
                     url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
                     json={'k1': 'v1', 'k2': '水电费'},
                     headers={'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'}
                     )


def param_cookies():
    # 发送Cookie到服务器端
    requests.request(method='POST',
                     url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
                     data={'k1': 'v1', 'k2': 'v2'},
                     cookies={'cook1': 'value1'},
                     )
    # 也可以使用CookieJar(字典形式就是在此基础上封装)
    from http.cookiejar import CookieJar
    from http.cookiejar import Cookie

    obj = CookieJar()
    obj.set_cookie(Cookie(version=0, name='c1', value='v1', port=None, domain='', path='/', secure=False, expires=None,
                          discard=True, comment=None, comment_url=None, rest={'HttpOnly': None}, rfc2109=False,
                          port_specified=False, domain_specified=False, domain_initial_dot=False, path_specified=False)
                   )
    requests.request(method='POST',
                     url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
                     data={'k1': 'v1', 'k2': 'v2'},
                     cookies=obj)


def param_files():
    # 发送文件
    # file_dict = {
    # 'f1': open('readme', 'rb')
    # }
    # requests.request(method='POST',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # files=file_dict)

    # 发送文件,定制文件名
    # file_dict = {
    # 'f1': ('test.txt', open('readme', 'rb'))
    # }
    # requests.request(method='POST',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # files=file_dict)

    # 发送文件,定制文件名
    # file_dict = {
    # 'f1': ('test.txt', "hahsfaksfa9kasdjflaksdjf")
    # }
    # requests.request(method='POST',
    # url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    # files=file_dict)

    # 发送文件,定制文件名
    # file_dict = {
    #     'f1': ('test.txt', "hahsfaksfa9kasdjflaksdjf", 'application/text', {'k1': '0'})
    # }
    # requests.request(method='POST',
    #                  url='http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/',
    #                  files=file_dict)

    pass


def param_auth():
    from requests.auth import HTTPBasicAuth, HTTPDigestAuth

    ret = requests.get('https://api.github.com/user', auth=HTTPBasicAuth('wupeiqi', 'sdfasdfasdf'))
    print(ret.text)

    # ret = requests.get('http://192.168.1.1',
    # auth=HTTPBasicAuth('admin', 'admin'))
    # ret.encoding = 'gbk'
    # print(ret.text)

    # ret = requests.get('http://httpbin.org/digest-auth/auth/user/pass', auth=HTTPDigestAuth('user', 'pass'))
    # print(ret)
    #


def param_timeout():
    # ret = requests.get('http://google.com/', timeout=1)
    # print(ret)

    # ret = requests.get('http://google.com/', timeout=(5, 1))
    # print(ret)
    pass


def param_allow_redirects():
    ret = requests.get('http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/', allow_redirects=False)
    print(ret.text)


def param_proxies():
    # proxies = {
    # "http": "61.172.249.96:80",
    # "https": "http://61.185.219.126:3128",
    # }

    # proxies = {'http://10.20.1.128': 'http://10.10.1.10:5323'}

    # ret = requests.get("http://www.proxy360.cn/Proxy", proxies=proxies)
    # print(ret.headers)


    # from requests.auth import HTTPProxyAuth
    #
    # proxyDict = {
    # 'http': '77.75.105.165',
    # 'https': '77.75.105.165'
    # }
    # auth = HTTPProxyAuth('username', 'mypassword')
    #
    # r = requests.get("http://www.google.com", proxies=proxyDict, auth=auth)
    # print(r.text)

    pass


def param_stream():
    ret = requests.get('http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/', stream=True)
    print(ret.content)
    ret.close()

    # from contextlib import closing
    # with closing(requests.get('http://httpbin.org/get', stream=True)) as r:
    # # 在此处理响应。
    # for i in r.iter_content():
    # print(i)


def requests_session():
    import requests

    session = requests.Session()

    ### 1、首先登陆任何页面,获取cookie

    i1 = session.get(url="http://dig.chouti.com/help/service")

    ### 2、用户登陆,携带上一次的cookie,后台对cookie中的 gpsd 进行授权
    i2 = session.post(
        url="http://dig.chouti.com/login",
        data={
            'phone': "8615131255089",
            'password': "xxxxxx",
            'oneMonth': ""
        }
    )

    i3 = session.post(
        url="http://dig.chouti.com/link/vote?linksId=8589623",
    )
    print(i3.text)
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官方文档:http://cn.python-requests.org/zh_CN/latest/user/quickstart.html#id4

 

作者:武沛齐
出处:http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi/
本文版权归作者和博客园共有,欢迎转载,但未经作者同意必须保留此段声明,且在文章页面明显位置给出原文连接。

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