Python爬虫BeautifulSoup

BeautifulSoup是一个模块,该模块用于接收一个HTML或XML字符串,然后将其进行格式化,之后遍可以使用他提供的方法进行快速查找指定元素,从而使得在HTML或XML中查找指定元素变得简单。

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup


html_doc = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
asdf
    <div class="title">
        <b>The Dormouse's story总共</b>
        <h1>f</h1>
    </div>
<div class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
    <a  class="sister0" id="link1">Els<span>f</span>ie</a>,
    <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
    <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</div>
ad<br/>sf
<p class="story">...</p>
</body>
</html>
"""


soup = BeautifulSoup(html_doc, features="lxml")
# 找到第一个a标签
tag1 = soup.find(name='a')
# 找到所有的a标签
tag2 = soup.find_all(name='a')
# 找到id=link2的标签
tag3 = soup.select('#link2')

安装:

pip3 install beautifulsoup4

使用示例:

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup


html_doc = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
    ...
</body>
</html>
"""


soup = BeautifulSoup(html_doc, features="lxml")

1. name,标签名称

# tag = soup.find('a')
# name = tag.name # 获取
# print(name)
# tag.name = 'span' # 设置
# print(soup)

2. attr,标签属性

# tag = soup.find('a')
# attrs = tag.attrs    # 获取
# print(attrs)
# tag.attrs = {'ik':123} # 设置
# tag.attrs['id'] = 'iiiii' # 设置
# print(soup)

3. children,所有子标签

# body = soup.find('body')
# v = body.children

4. children,所有子子孙孙标签

# body = soup.find('body')
# v = body.descendants

5. clear,将标签的所有子标签全部清空(保留标签名)

# tag = soup.find('body')
# tag.clear()
# print(soup)

6. decompose,递归的删除所有的标签

# body = soup.find('body')
# body.decompose()
# print(soup)

7. extract,递归的删除所有的标签,并获取删除的标签

# body = soup.find('body')
# v = body.extract()
# print(soup)

8. decode,转换为字符串(含当前标签);decode_contents(不含当前标签)

# body = soup.find('body')
# v = body.decode()
# v = body.decode_contents()
# print(v)

9. encode,转换为字节(含当前标签);encode_contents(不含当前标签)

# body = soup.find('body')
# v = body.encode()
# v = body.encode_contents()
# print(v)

10. find,获取匹配的第一个标签

# tag = soup.find('a')
# print(tag)
# tag = soup.find(name='a', attrs={'class': 'sister'}, recursive=True, text='Lacie')
# tag = soup.find(name='a', class_='sister', recursive=True, text='Lacie')
# print(tag)

11. find_all,获取匹配的所有标签

# tags = soup.find_all('a')
# print(tags)

# tags = soup.find_all('a',limit=1)
# print(tags)

# tags = soup.find_all(name='a', attrs={'class': 'sister'}, recursive=True, text='Lacie')
# # tags = soup.find(name='a', class_='sister', recursive=True, text='Lacie')
# print(tags)

# ####### 列表 #######
# v = soup.find_all(name=['a','div'])
# print(v)

# v = soup.find_all(class_=['sister0', 'sister'])
# print(v)

# v = soup.find_all(text=['Tillie'])
# print(v, type(v[0]))

# v = soup.find_all(id=['link1','link2'])
# print(v)

# v = soup.find_all(href=['link1','link2'])
# print(v)

# ####### 正则 #######
import re
# rep = re.compile('p')
# rep = re.compile('^p')
# v = soup.find_all(name=rep)
# print(v)


# rep = re.compile('sister.*')
# v = soup.find_all(class_=rep)
# print(v)


# rep = re.compile('http://www.oldboy.com/static/.*')
# v = soup.find_all(href=rep)
# print(v)

# ####### 方法筛选 #######
# def func(tag):
# return tag.has_attr('class') and tag.has_attr('id')
# v = soup.find_all(name=func)
# print(v)

# ## get,获取标签属性
# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.get('id')
# print(v)

12. has_attr,检查标签是否具有该属性

# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.has_attr('id')
# print(v)

13. get_text,获取标签内部文本内容

# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.get_text('id')
# print(v)

14. index,检查标签在某标签中的索引位置

# tag = soup.find('body')
# v = tag.index(tag.find('div'))
# print(v)


# tag = soup.find('body')
# for i,v in enumerate(tag):
# print(i,v)

15. is_empty_element,是否是空标签(是否可以是空)或者自闭合标签,

判断是否是如下标签:’br’ , ‘hr’, ‘input’, ‘img’, ‘meta’,’spacer’, ‘link’, ‘frame’, ‘base’

# tag = soup.find('br')
# v = tag.is_empty_element
# print(v)

16. 当前的关联标签

# soup.next
# soup.next_element
# soup.next_elements
# soup.next_sibling
# soup.next_siblings


#
# tag.previous
# tag.previous_element
# tag.previous_elements
# tag.previous_sibling
# tag.previous_siblings


#
# tag.parent
# tag.parents

17. 查找某标签的关联标签

# tag.find_next(...)
# tag.find_all_next(...)
# tag.find_next_sibling(...)
# tag.find_next_siblings(...)


# tag.find_previous(...)
# tag.find_all_previous(...)
# tag.find_previous_sibling(...)
# tag.find_previous_siblings(...)


# tag.find_parent(...)
# tag.find_parents(...)


# 参数同find_all

18. select,select_one, CSS选择器

soup.select("title")


soup.select("p nth-of-type(3)")


soup.select("body a")


soup.select("html head title")


tag = soup.select("span,a")


soup.select("head > title")


soup.select("p > a")


soup.select("p > a:nth-of-type(2)")


soup.select("p > #link1")


soup.select("body > a")


soup.select("#link1 ~ .sister")


soup.select("#link1 + .sister")


soup.select(".sister")


soup.select("[class~=sister]")


soup.select("#link1")


soup.select("a#link2")


soup.select('a[href]')


soup.select('a[href="http://example.com/elsie"]')


soup.select('a[href^="http://example.com/"]')


soup.select('a[href$="tillie"]')


soup.select('a[href*=".com/el"]')




from bs4.element import Tag


def default_candidate_generator(tag):
    for child in tag.descendants:
        if not isinstance(child, Tag):
            continue
        if not child.has_attr('href'):
            continue
        yield child


tags = soup.find('body').select("a", _candidate_generator=default_candidate_generator)
print(type(tags), tags)


from bs4.element import Tag
def default_candidate_generator(tag):
    for child in tag.descendants:
        if not isinstance(child, Tag):
            continue
        if not child.has_attr('href'):
            continue
        yield child


tags = soup.find('body').select("a", _candidate_generator=default_candidate_generator, limit=1)
print(type(tags), tags)

19. 标签的内容

# tag = soup.find('span')
# print(tag.string)          # 获取
# tag.string = 'new content' # 设置
# print(soup)


# tag = soup.find('body')
# print(tag.string)
# tag.string = 'xxx'
# print(soup)


# tag = soup.find('body')
# v = tag.stripped_strings  # 递归内部获取所有标签的文本
# print(v)

20.append在当前标签内部追加一个标签

# tag = soup.find('body')
# tag.append(soup.find('a'))
# print(soup)
#
# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name='i',attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj.string = '我是一个新来的'
# tag = soup.find('body')
# tag.append(obj)
# print(soup)

21.insert在当前标签内部指定位置插入一个标签

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name='i', attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj.string = '我是一个新来的'
# tag = soup.find('body')
# tag.insert(2, obj)
# print(soup)

22. insert_after,insert_before 在当前标签后面或前面插入

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name='i', attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj.string = '我是一个新来的'
# tag = soup.find('body')
# # tag.insert_before(obj)
# tag.insert_after(obj)
# print(soup)

23. replace_with 在当前标签替换为指定标签

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name='i', attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj.string = '我是一个新来的'
# tag = soup.find('div')
# tag.replace_with(obj)
# print(soup)

24. 创建标签之间的关系

# tag = soup.find('div')
# a = soup.find('a')
# tag.setup(previous_sibling=a)
# print(tag.previous_sibling)

25. wrap,将指定标签把当前标签包裹起来

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj1 = Tag(name='div', attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj1.string = '我是一个新来的'
#
# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.wrap(obj1)
# print(soup)


# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.wrap(soup.find('p'))
# print(soup)

26. unwrap,去掉当前标签,将保留其包裹的标签

# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.unwrap()
# print(soup)

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